Who we are

Page last updated: 2022 - due to be refreshed in 2023. 
The deaths section (5.2) will be updated in Spring 2022, when data becomes available for the calendar year 2021. 

 

1 Five key points

  1. In 2020, approximately 761,250 people lived in Suffolk. Compared to England, Suffolk has a higher proportion of people aged 65 and over and a lower proportion of working age people. (3 What is the local picture?)

  2. In 2020, there were 6,811 live births in Suffolk, which is the lowest number of births in the County in more than a decade. (5.1 What causes population change? Births)

  3. In 2017, there were 7,909 deaths recorded in Suffolk, which is the highest number in the last 5 years. As people are generally living longer, and the population ages, the number of deaths is expected to increase. (5.2 What causes population change? Deaths)

  4. Currently, nearly 1 in 4 people living in Suffolk are aged 65 and over. Over the next 20 years, this is forecast to change, with 1 in 3 Suffolk residents being aged 65 and over, compared to 1 in 4 for England. (4 How is the population changing?)

  5. Population growth since 2011 has been exclusively in older age groups and this is expected to continue, with the number of people aged 65 and over increasing while the proportion aged under 65 falls.  (4 How is the population changing?)

2 Why is population important in Suffolk?

The health and health care needs of a population cannot be measured or met without knowledge of its size and characteristics. The main population influences on health service needs are:

  1. size
  2. age structure
  3. ethnicity
  4. migration
  5. inequalities and deprivation

One individual may belong to more than one demographic “group”. Not everyone within the same demographic group will experience the same challenges.

Understanding how a population has changed in the past can help project how a population may appear in the future, whether by complex calculations or simple facts. For example, the “baby boomers” born in the 1960s will be in “older age” by 2041. These projections can inform future health and care planning.

Some life stages require higher levels of health care, such as:

  • neonatal period (first 4 weeks of life) and infancy
  • fertile years for women (support for pregnancy and childbirth)
  • old age (when multimorbidity increases, healing may be slower, and treatments may be palliative rather than curative)

Further impacts of longer life include:

  • increased need for social care. One in five people aged 75 to 84 have at least some problems washing or dressing, and this is even higher for people aged 85 and over
  • difficulty accessing services, as older people often live in more rural areas and may find it difficult to travel

In Suffolk (and England as a whole) the population aged 65 and over is growing more rapidly than the working age population, and faster than the retirement age is increasing.

Population data should be used to improve access to services and reduce inequalities. The Equality Act 2010 prohibits unlawful discrimination in the provision of services on the grounds of age, disability (physical or mental, including long-term conditions), gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex and sexual orientation (these are known collectively as “protected characteristics”). Clinical Commissioning Groups are legally required to reduce inequalities in access to and outcomes of health services. Therefore, organisations need to know about our communities and their needs.

NHS England uses the term “inclusion health” to define groups of people who are socially excluded and often experience poor health outcomes, such as:

  • people who are homeless and rough sleepers
  • the Traveller community (including Gypsies and Roma)
  • vulnerable migrants (refugees and asylum seekers)
  • sex workers
  • those undergoing or surviving Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
  • those undergoing or surviving human trafficking
  • those who define themselves as being part of the recovery movement, both through substance misuse and mental ill health
  • the trans / non-binary community

In Suffolk, other community groups we may also wish to consider include:

  • carers
  • people who are economically disadvantaged
  • rural populations

Some of these groups are considered in more detail in the chapter on groups at risk of disadvantage. These groups may be small, and difficult to engage, so may be invisible to commissioners and service providers.

3 What is the local picture?

The total population of Suffolk is around 761,250.

You can also view an interactive population dashboard for Suffolk.

3.1 Population by age

Figure 1: Suffolk population by broad age band and district/borough, 2020

Suffolk population by district SoS

Source: Office for National Statistics. “Mid-Year Population Estimates, UK, June 2020”, 2021.

Interactive analysis of estimated population change for England and Wales, by geography, age and sex, from mid-2011 onwards are available from the Office for National Statistics. 

Suffolk has a higher percentage of its population aged 65 and over than England (23.8% compared to 18.5%), and a lower proportion of working age people (58.3% compared to 62.3%).

Ipswich (20.5%) is the only area in Suffolk where the percentage of children (aged under 16) is above the average for England (19.2%). (Figure 1)

East Suffolk (27.7%) and Babergh (26.5%) have the highest proportion of people aged over 65. Other than Ipswich, all areas in Suffolk have a higher proportion of people aged 65 compared to England (18.5%).

Ipswich is the only borough or district to have a higher proportion of working age adults than England (Ipswich 62.5%, England 62.3%).

Age pyramids for Suffolk and its districts/boroughs compared to England (Figure 2) can be created by choosing areas from Figure 2's dropdown boxes. The increase in the proportion of older people is shown by playing changes over time (2018 to 2043).

Figure 2: Population pyramid

Source: Office for National Statistics, “Subnational population projections for England: 2018-based (report),” 2020. 

3.2 Population by ethnicity

At the time of the 2011 Census, 90.8% of Suffolk’s population was White British, compared to 79.8% for England. After White British, the most common ethnicities were Other White (4.4%), Asian (1.8%) and Mixed heritage (1.7%) (Figure 3). The results of the 2021 Census should be available in 2022.

Figure 3: Ethnic groups in Suffolk, region and country, 2011

Figure 3: Ethnicity groups by county, region and country, 2011

Source: Office for National Statistics. Census 2011 Ethnic group - NOMIS table KS201EW. (2011).

In 2011, the proportion of residents who did not identify as White British was higher in urban areas compared to rural areas. Proportions were higher in the North West of the county, where United States military forces and support staff are stationed with their families (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Map of Suffolk showing the proportion of residents from a Black, Asian or minority ethnic group by lower super output area, 2011

  Figure 4: Map of Suffolk showing the proportion of residents from a Black or Minority Ethnic (BME) group by Lower Super Output Area, 2011

Source: Office for National Statistics. Census 2011 Ethnic group - NOMIS table KS201EW. (2011)

In 2020, 92.4% of the Suffolk population were UK nationals, which is higher than for England (90.3%). People who were not UK nationals were most likely to be nationals of:

  1. European Union 5.2% (England 5.5%)
  2. Rest of the World 1.6% (England 1.9%)
  3. Sub-Saharan African 0.7% (England 0.8%)
  4. North American 0.7% (England 0.4%)

In 2020, 90.3% of Suffolk residents were born in the UK, compared to 84.4% in England. People living in Suffolk who weren't born in the UK were most likely to have been born in:

  1. European Union 6.1% (England 5.6%)
  2. Rest of the World 2.3% (England 4.6%)
  3. Sub-Saharan Africa 1.1% (England 2.4%)
  4. North American 0.9% (England 0.6%)

3.3 Population by sex or gender

A higher proportion of the population are female in England, and in Suffolk.

ONS estimates and projections by sex and broad age band (see Figure 2) show there are more males than females among children (0-15), a difference that is less pronounced among the working age population (16 to 64). Better life expectancy rates for women mean there are more older women (65 and over) than men.

The gap between the number of males and females aged 65 and over is reducing. By 2041, 47.0% of people aged 65 and over in Suffolk will be male, compared to 44.8% in 2008 (46.6% in 2041 and 43.7% in 2008 for England).[7], [11], [12]

There are estimated to be 2,630-7,610 transgender people in Suffolk, that is people whose gender identity is different from the sex assigned at birth.[30] This estimate is based on a population prevalence of 0.35%-1.0% as used by the Government Equalities Office. This figure does not include people who identify as non-binary.[13]

3.4 Population by sexual identity

Estimates of sexual identity can be calculated using results from the Annual Population Survey. By applying estimates for the East of England region to the Suffolk population, there may be between 10,600 and 23,100 Suffolk residents aged 16 and over who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual or other (Table 1). Estimates at a lower geography are unreliable and not available for Suffolk.

Older people (65 and older) are more likely to identify as heterosexual or straight (UK 95.8%, CI +/- 0.2%) than younger people (16 - 24) (UK 88.5%, CI +/- 1.1%). As Suffolk has a higher percentage of older people, the estimate is likely to be slightly lower than shown.

Table 1: Sexual identity in England, and estimated Suffolk figures, 16 years old and over, 2019

Sexual identity East of England Suffolk
  % Confidence interval (CI) +/- Low est. High est.
 Heterosexual or straight 95.5% 0.7  592,100  600,800
 Gay or lesbian 1.2% 0.4  5,000 10,000
 Bisexual 1.0% 0.3  4,400 8,100
 Other 0.5% 0.3  1,200 5,000
 Don't know or refuse 1.8% 0.4  8,700 13,700

Source: Office for National Statistics. Sexual orientation, UK: 2019

Note: Confidence Intervals (CI) indicate a range of values that are likely to encompass the true value. In the above table, this means 92.8-93.2% of people in England identify as heterosexual or straight. Confidence intervals become larger when smaller samples are used, which is why sexual identity figures for lower geographies are less reliable, and why they were not published for Suffolk.

3.5 Population by religion

3 in 5 (443,632) Suffolk residents identified as Christian in the 2011 Census (60.9%, 59.4% England). The next largest group was people who had “no religion” (29.7%, 24.7% England). The next largest religious group was Muslim, at 0.8% (5.0% England), or fewer than 6,000 people (Figure 5).

Figure 5: Population by religion, Suffolk 2011

Figure 5: Suffolk population by religion, 2011

Source: Suffolk Observatory / Census

3.6 Refugees in Suffolk

There are an estimated 2,500 refugees in Suffolk, the majority of them living in Ipswich. For historical reasons, the largest community comprises Iraqi Kurds, with established communities of Iranians and Afghans as well. Many of these have refugee status or leave to remain in the UK, with some also having achieved British citizenship.

There are also currently 80-90 asylum seekers, many of them families, housed in Ipswich under the government’s ‘dispersal’ system. These people come from a range of countries and all are awaiting a decision on their asylum claim. In addition, over recent years Suffolk has hosted an increased number of Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children (UASCs).

3.7 Armed forces and veterans in Suffolk

In April 2021, there were 3,910 Ministry of Defence personnel stationed in Suffolk, including 660 civilian staff. This is a decrease in personnel of 26.6% since April 2012.

Veterans are defined as “those aged 16+ residing in Great Britain who have served at least one day in the UK Armed Forces”. It is estimated that 38,000 veterans were living in Suffolk in 2017.  This accounts for 6.9% of the Suffolk residents aged 16 and over.  The percentage of veterans in Great Britain who are aged 70 and over is significantly higher than for other age bands. This reflects the numbers who served in World War Two or who completed National Service after the war.

Suffolk is host to the two largest United States Air Force bases in the UK, at RAF Lakenheath and RAF Mildenhall. There are nearly 9,000 US personnel based in Suffolk at these two military bases.

4 How is the population changing?

The population of Suffolk grew by 4.3% from 2011 to 2020, which is lower than the growth rate for England (6.5%). This overall growth rate conceals larger changes within age groups. All the growth in Suffolk’s total population was from people aged 65 and over, as the growth in children (aged 0 – 15) was cancelled out by a fall in the 16 – 64-year-old population.

Figure 6: Population change from 2011 to 2020 by broad age group for Suffolk local authorities 

Figure 7: Population change 2011-17 by broad age group as % total change

Source: Office for National Statistics. Population estimates - local authority based by five year age band.

The number of people aged 65 and over in Suffolk is projected to grow by 20.8% between mid-2020 and mid-2030 (20.9% England). Growth will be seen in all districts and boroughs. The older population will increase at the lowest rate in Ipswich (16.4%), and the highest in Mid Suffolk (23.7%).

In mid-2020, two districts in Suffolk had a population where at least one-quarter of people were estimated to be aged 65 and over (East Suffolk 27.7%, Babergh 26.5%). By 2030, only Ipswich (20.0%) and West Suffolk (24.5%) will have populations where less than a quarter of people are estimated to be 65 and over. In East Suffolk (32.2%) and Babergh (30.6%), people aged 65 and over will comprise nearly a third of the resident population.

Suffolk’s total population is expected to increase by 7.0% between 2020 and 2040, which equates to around 53,300 extra people (twice the current population of Haverhill) (Figure 7).

The following interactive, Figure 7, shows how age structure differs by local authority over time.

Figure 7: Broad age group percentage of the UK population by local authority, 1999-2039

Source: Office for National Statistics. Overview of the UK Population.

In 2020, an estimated 23.8% of Suffolk’s population is aged 65 or more (compared to 18.5% for England). By 2040, the population of residents aged 65 and over will increase by over 37.8% (in line with England 38.3%), while the Suffolk population under 65 will fall by 2.7%, compared to growth in England of 1.0%.

In 20 years, we can expect that 1 in 3 Suffolk’s residents will be aged 65 or over, compared to 1 in 4 for England. The number of people aged 85 or over in Suffolk is expected to increase from 25,900 to 47,200.

Figure 8: Suffolk population change 2020 - 2040, based on 2018-based projections (ONS)

Figure 9: Suffolk population change 2018 - 2040, based on 2016-based projections (ONS)

Source: Office for National Statistics. Subnational Population Projections for England: 2018-Based (Report). 2020

Figure 9: Change in population 2020 to 2040

Figure 7: Population change 2011-17 by broad age group as % total change

Source: Office for National Statistics. Subnational Population Projections for England: 2018-Based (Report). 2020

4.1 What might be the impact of our changing population?

With ongoing advances in technology, healthcare and lifestyles, people in the UK are living longer on average than they might have in the past. However, they are also likely to live more years in poor health, increasing demand on health and social care services.

The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study provides a tool to quantify health loss from hundreds of diseases, injuries, and risk factors, so that health systems can be improved and disparities can be eliminated. To make these results more accessible and useful, a suite of interactive data visualisations is available to analyse the data. The tools include models of years lived with a disability (YLD). Back and neck pain dominate  - 14.1% of YLD in Suffolk in 2019 were due to this.

Figure 10: Years lived with a disability, Suffolk 2019

Figure 10: Years lived with a disability, Suffolk 2017

Source: Global Burden of Disease Study, The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Over the next 20 to 50 years, fewer and fewer people will have significant housing equity or adequate pension funds, which means that more people are predicted to fall within current means testing limits to fund their retirement / social care needs.

As the population lives longer, there is an increase in its old-age dependency ratio (OADR) - the number of people of State Pension age (those aged 65 years and older) per every 1,000 of the working-age population (those aged 16 to 64 years old). In mid-2020, the OADR of England was 278.9. Even after accounting for the planned changes to State Pension age under existing legislation, the OADR in England is projected to be 352.4 by 2040.

Except for Ipswich, all districts in Suffolk have a higher OADR than England as a whole. Ratios are particularly high in East Suffolk (listed separately as Suffolk Coastal and Waveney in Figure 12) and Babergh. This is likely to increase demand for health and care services in these areas.

Figure 11: Projected old age dependency ratio over time for Suffolk local authorities

Figure 12: Projected Old age dependency ratio over time for Suffolk local authorities

Source: Office for National Statistics. Population of State Pension age and working age, and old age dependency ratios, for local authorities and regions in England.

The increases in OADR coincide with falling fertility rates in England (see Figure 15 in next section), which have declined from 1.93 children per woman in 2011 to 1.59 in 2020 (2.04 to 1.66 in Suffolk). With fewer births to balance living longer, the overall age structure of the UK has tipped further towards the later-life age groups.

Use the interactive map (Figure 11) to see how local authority-level OADRs are projected to change between mid-2018 to mid-2028.

Figure 11: Population age composition by broad age groups and old age dependency ratio for local authorities in England, mid-2018 and mid-2028

Source: Office for National Statistics. Subnational population projections for England: 2018-based (report).

5 What causes population change?

The Office for National Statistics creates population projections based on natural change (births and deaths), internal migration within the UK, and international migration.

ONS project that there will be almost twice as many deaths as births in Suffolk between 2018 and 2028, meaning that natural change will be negative. Only Forest Heath (now part of West Suffolk) and Ipswich will see an increase from natural change. Despite this, the Suffolk population is still expected to rise over this period because of inward migration (mostly from within the UK). Ipswich is one of only 22 local authorities in England that is expected see the population size decrease over this period; the reason being significant outward migration from Ipswich to other areas of the UK (around 10,500 people).

Figure 13 is an interactive tool that illustrates how the populations of each local authority in England are projected to change. Choose a local authority to see total population change, natural change, net international migration and net within UK migration over the period mid-2018 to mid-2028.

Figure 13: Population change for local authorities in England between mid-2018 and mid-2028

Source: Office for National Statistics. Subnational population projections for England: 2018-based (report).

5.1 Births

There were 6,811 live births in Suffolk in 2020, a decrease of 6.0% from 2019 and the lowest number of live births in a single year during the last decade. England also had the lowest number of live births this decade, with a decrease of 4.1% since 2019.

Figure 14: Live births over time in Suffolk

Figure 14: Live births, trends comparing Suffolk and England

Source: Office for National Statistics, Births in England and Wales

Suffolk’s total fertility rate (TFR; the average number of live children that a group of women would bear if they experienced the age-specific fertility rates of the calendar year throughout their childbearing lifespan) has been consistently higher than the England rate since 2010. There has been a general downward trend in the total fertility rate in both Suffolk and England for more than a decade.

Figure 15: Total fertility rate Suffolk and England, 2011 - 2020

Figure 15: Total fertility rate Suffolk and England, 2006 - 2017

Source: Office for National Statistics, Births in England and Wales

Variation between England and local authority areas may be caused by variations in the composition of the population and social, economic and cultural differences. Most importantly, fertility rates for some local authorities are based on relatively small populations – such calculations are often subject to random fluctuations and are consequently less robust. See the embedded map (Figure 16) below for comparisons between the TFR for Suffolk boroughs and districts compared to England as a whole.

This interactive map shows the change over time in the TFR by district or borough council, 2001 to 2020. In 2020, the East of England had a higher TFR than any other region (1.69 children per woman).

Figure 16: Total fertility rate (TFR) by local authority district, 2001 to 2020

Source: Office for National Statistics, Births in England and Wales

5.1.1 Live births to non-UK born mothers

In 2020, 1 in 5 (21.6%) births in Suffolk were to mothers born outside the UK (1,486 out of 6,811). This compares to nearly 1 in 3 births across England (30.2%).  The highest proportion of births to mothers born outside the UK were in Ipswich (33.8%) and West Suffolk (32.9%). There is a notably high proportion of births to mothers from the “rest of the world” in West Suffolk (14.1%, compared to 2.2% across England). This is influenced by the presence of both RAF Lakenheath and RAF Mildenhall, where US Forces and support staff are stationed.

Figure 17: Proportion of babies born to mothers born outside the UK by district/borough of usual residence, 2020

Figure 17: Proportion of babies born to mothers born outside the UK by district/borough of usual residence, 2017

Source: Office for National Statistics, Parents’ country of birth

5.2 Deaths

This section will be updated in Spring 2022, when data becomes available for the calendar year 2021. 

There were 7,909 deaths recorded in Suffolk in 2017, a 4.5% increase from 2016 (1.6% increase for England) and the highest annual number for the past 5 years. England also recorded the highest number of deaths for five years.

The number of deaths is affected by the size and age structure of the population. As people are tending to live longer, the population is increasing in both size and age over time, therefore the number of deaths is expected to increase.

Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) allow for differences in the age structure of populations so that valid comparisons can be made between geographic areas, over time and between sexes. They are usually expressed as the number of deaths per 100,000 population. ASMRs increased for both sexes in 2017; by 1.5% for males and 2.0% for females. This is against a decrease in England of 0.3% for males and 0.1% for females. Compared to England, a higher proportion of Suffolk residents die aged over 85 which is consistent with the higher life expectancy in Suffolk – see population pyramid (Figure 2).

Both the number of deaths and age-specific mortality rates for people aged 90 years and over increased in 2017, by 8.5% (4.4% England) and 6.5% (3.1% England) respectively (Figure 18).

Figure 18: Deaths by age group, 2017, %

Figure 18: Suffolk & England comparison Deaths by age group, 2017, %

Source: Office for National Statistics. (2018). Mortality statistics - age. 

In 2017, the England infant mortality rate (deaths in children aged under one year) increased for the first time in five years to 3.9 deaths per 1,000 live births. In contrast, Suffolk’s infant mortality rate in 2017 was the lowest it has been for five years, at 2.3 deaths per 1,000 live births. The Suffolk figures are based on relatively small numbers, so may be more liable to fluctuations.

Cancers, circulatory diseases and respiratory diseases remained the top 3 causes of death in England and in Suffolk in 2017 (Figure 19). Rates for cancer decreased (4.8% England, 1.2% Suffolk), while rates for respiratory diseases increased in both areas (0.2% England, 5.7% Suffolk). Rates for mental and behavioural disorders, and diseases of the nervous system increased by 1.6% (3.3% England) and 14.4% (7.2% England) respectively.

Certain causes of death affect particular age groups - for example, accidents cause 17.9% of deaths among under 45s, but only 1.7% of deaths in the 65-74 and 75-84 age bands. Dementia and Alzheimer's disease are found in  older age groups, with the impact increasing by age band (3.5% deaths in 65-74 year olds, rising to 21.0% of people 85+) (Figure 19). 

Figure 19: Cause of death by age group, all deaths among Suffolk residents in 2017

Figure 19: Cause of death by age group, all deaths among Suffolk residents in 2017

Source: NHS Digital. Primary Care Mortality Database.

Variation in mortality rates between different local areas reflects differences in income, socio-economic status and health behaviour. Increased mortality rates for many causes of death have long been associated with higher levels of deprivation: Waveney and Ipswich are ranked the two most deprived local authorities in Suffolk.

In 2017, the highest ASMR (age standardised mortality rate, per 100,000 population) rates in Suffolk were found in Waveney (980.2 per 100,000) and Ipswich (979.5 per 100,000) (Figure 20) . This was an increase from 2016 of 4.6% (Waveney) and 4.8% (Ipswich). Both were above the England rate (958.8) and the Suffolk rate (885.9). 

The tool below (Figure 20) is an interactive map showing the change in mortality rates 2001 to 2017 at district / borough level (click on the tabs to select a sex, click on the map to select an area, then press play to see how ASMR has changed over time compared to England and Wales).

Figure 20: Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) by local authority districts, 2001 to 2017, England and Wales

5.3 Migration

Because births and deaths are relatively balanced in Suffolk, most of the population change to 2022 will be as a result of internal migration, that is movement of people within the UK (and especially movement within England).

Figure 21: Components of population change, Suffolk 2021 to 2022

Poster showing components of population change (internal, cross-border, and international migration, births and deaths)

Source: Office for National Statistics. Population projections incorporating births, deaths and migration for regions and local authorities

6 Household composition

In 2011, there were 310,745 households in Suffolk. Suffolk has a higher percentage of one family households than England, as well as a higher proportion of people living as couples (with or without children).

61.1% of Suffolk households are in urban areas, compared to 82.3% for England as a whole.

Figure 22: Households by broad categories, Suffolk authorities and England, 2011

Figure 22: Households by broad categories, Suffolk authorities and England, 2011

Source: Office for National Statistics. KS105EW (Household composition). NOMIS - Official Labour Market Statistics.

At the time of the 2011 Census, roughly a quarter of Suffolk households (25.7%, 26.5% for England) had dependent children, and just under a third (29.0% compared to 30.2%) were single-person households. By 2041 this is projected to fall to a fifth of households with dependent children (21.4%, 24.7% England), with a third (32.7%, 33.1% England) expected to be one-person households.

Figure 23: One family households: broad breakdown

Figure 24: one family households: broad breakdown

Source: Office for National Statistics. KS105EW (Household composition). NOMIS - Official Labour Market Statistics.

The number of households across Suffolk are forecast to increase by 12% between 2020 and 2040, which is double the rate of population growth, as changes in the demographic structure of the population significantly change household composition (Figure 23). The largest proportional increases are forecast to be among singles and shared households (couples with other adults and ‘other’ household types) (Figure 24). Rising private rent costs will likely affect the formation of younger households: by 2030, 40% of all under-40s in Suffolk are forecast to be living back at home with parents.

Figure 24: Household composition and change 2018 - 2043

Figure 25: Household composition and change 2016 - 2041

Source: Office for National Statistics. Household Projections for England.

At the time of the 2011 Census, a quarter (24.8%, 20.7% England) of Suffolk households were occupied only by people aged 65 and over. Forecasts predict a significant shift in the proportion of older households with a greater number of couples aged 65 to 85 (and singles at age 85+). By 2043, this is projected to be 44.7% (36.4% England). In Suffolk Coastal (now part of East Suffolk), it is projected that over half (52.2%) of all households will be occupied by people aged 65 and over.

Between 2018 and 2043, average household size is projected to fall across Suffolk (2.28 to 2.14) and England (2.37 to 2.24). The smallest household sizes will be found in the districts with the highest percentage of households occupied by people aged 65 and over (Figure 25). This reflects national findings from the 2011 Census, that “very high levels of age 65 and over living alone in the coastal areas of England and Wales are apparent, reflecting the high concentrations of older people living in these locations.”

Figure 25: Change in average household size, Suffolk local authorities, 2018 - 2043

Figure 27: Change in average household size, Suffolk local authorities, 2016 - 2041

Source: Office for National Statistics. Household Projections for England; 2018.

7 References

[1]        E. Grundy and M. J. Murphy, “Demography and public health,” in Oxford Textbook of Global Public Health, 6th ed., R. Detels, M. Gulliford, Q. A. Karim, and C. C. Tan, Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. 718–735.

[2]        M. Goodyear, S. Seager, and PHAST, “The significance of demographic changes for the health of the population and on the need for health and related services | Health Knowledge,” in Public Health Textbook, Gerrards Cross: PHAST, 2017. https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/health-information/3a-populations/demographic-changes

[3]        NHS England, “Improving access for all: reducing inequalities in access to general practice services,” 2017. https://www.england.nhs.uk/publication/improving-access-for-all-reducing-inequalities-in-access-to-general-practice-services/

[4]        Office for National Statistics, “Living longer: how our population is changing and why it matters,” Living longer, 2018. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/ageing/articles/livinglongerhowourpopulationischangingandwhyitmatters/2018-08-13#how-is-the-uk-population-changing

[5]        Office for National Statistics, “Living longer: Fitting it all in – working, caring and health in later life,” Living Longer, 2018. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/ageing/articles/livinglongerhowourpopulationischangingandwhyitmatters/fittingitallinworkingcaringandhealthinlaterlife

[6]        M. Marmot, “Fair Society, Healthy Lives: Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England post-2010,” 2010.  http://www.instituteofhealthequity.org/resources-reports/fair-society-healthy-lives-the-marmot-review/fair-society-healthy-lives-full-report-pdf.pdf

[7]       Office for National Statistics, "Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland", 2021  https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/datasets/populationestimatesforukenglandandwalesscotlandandnorthernireland

[8]        Office for National Statistics, “Subnational population projections for England: 2018-based (report),” 2020.  https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationprojections/bulletins/subnationalpopulationprojectionsforengland/2018based

[9]        Suffolk Observatory, “Suffolk Observatory – Population.” https://www.suffolkobservatory.info/population/

[10]      Office for National Statistics, “Census 2011 Ethnic group - table KS201EW,” NOMIS - Official Labour Market Statistics, 2011. https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/health-information/3a-populations/demographic-changes

[11]      Government Equalities Office, “National LGBT Survey: Research report,” London, 2018. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-lgbt-survey-summary-report

[12]      Office for National Statistics, “Sexual orientation, UK,” 2019. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/culturalidentity/sexuality/bulletins/sexualidentityuk/2019

[13]      Suffolk Refugee Support, "The Local Situation",  2021. [Online] Available: https://suffolkrefugee.org.uk/background/#local-situation

[14]      Ministry of Defence, “Location of armed forces pension and compensation recipients: 2021,” 2018. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/location-of-armed-forces-pension-and-compensation-recipients-2021

[15]      Ministry of Defence, “Location of UK regular service and civilian personnel quarterly statistics: 2021", 2021. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/location-of-uk-regular-service-and-civilian-personnel-annual-statistics-2021

[16]      Office for National Statistics, “Overview of the UK population (January 2021),” 2021. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/articles/overviewoftheukpopulation/january2021

[17]         Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, “Global Burden of Disease 2019 Compare tool,” 2021. [Online]. Available: https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/

[18]      J. Ronoh and N. Azim, “Suffolk Healthy Ageing Needs Assessment,” Ipswich, 2018. https://www.healthysuffolk.org.uk/uploads/Suffolk_Housing_and_Health_Final_Mar18HWB.pdf

[19]      Office for National Statistics, “Population of State Pension age and working age, and old age dependency ratios, for local authorities and regions in England.” https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationprojections/datasets/populationofstatepensionageandworkingageandoldagedependencyratiosforlocalauthoritiesandregionsinengland

[20]      Office for National Statistics, “Population projections incorporating births, deaths and migration for regions and local authorities: Table 5,” 2020. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationprojections/datasets/componentsofchangebirthsdeathsandmigrationforregionsandlocalauthoritiesinenglandtable5

[21]      Office for National Statistics, “Births in England and Wales: 2020.”  https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/livebirths/bulletins/birthsummarytablesenglandandwales/2020

[22]      NHS Digital, “Primary Care Mortality Database.” https://digital.nhs.uk/services/primary-care-mortality-database

[23]      Office for National Statistics, “Household projections for England,” 2020. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationprojections/bulletins/householdprojectionsforengland/2018based

[24]      Office for National Statistics, “KS105EW (Household composition),” NOMIS - Official Labour Market Statistics, 2013. https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/census/2011/ks105ew 

[25]      Suffolk County Council, “Suffolk Housing and Health Needs Assessment,” 2018. https://www.healthysuffolk.org.uk/uploads/Suffolk_Housing_and_Health_Final_Mar18HWB.pdf

[26]      Office for National Statistics, “Families and Households in England and Wales: 2011,” 2013. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/families/articles/familiesandhouseholdsinenglandandwales/2013-01-30

[27]      Office for National Statistics, “What is the difference between sex and gender?,” 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.ons.gov.uk/economy/environmentalaccounts/articles/whatisthedifferencebetweensexandgender/2019-02-21